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4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第1张图片
Image © Toshinari Soga (studio BAUHAUS)

School and Daycare Projects for Different Climates

由专筑网小R,吴静雅编译

在欧洲,儿童大约每年会花200天的时间呆在学校里,在世界的大部分地区,孩子们的在校时间并没有那么长,但是学校与日托中心大概是孩子们除了家以外呆的时间最长的地方了。在这里,孩子们可以学习、玩耍和社交,尤其在贫困或是战乱地区,孩子们在这里也许会更加安全。英国的一项调查显示,在一年的时间当中,教室的物理特性差异占学习进程的变化的16%。也就是说,教室的设计越好,那孩子们的学习状况也越好。研究显示,最影响孩子们状态的因素是阳光、室内空气质量、声学环境、温度、教室自身设计感,以及内部的刺激要素。

European children spend approximately 200 days a year at primary school. Even though the academic year in most parts of the world is not as long as in Europe, the place where children and adolescents spend the most time, following their own homes, is usually in educational institutions. These can be places for learning, playing and socializing, and as sad as it may be, they can also be safer places for children living in environments of abandonment, hunger, and violence, providing them with opportunities and even meals. A United Kingdom-wide survey found that the differences in physical characteristics of classrooms accounted for 16% of the variations in learning progress over the course of a year. In other words, the better a classroom is designed, the better children perform academically. According to the study, the factors that most affect children are sunlight, indoor air quality, acoustic environment, temperature, the design of the classroom itself and the stimulation within it.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第2张图片
Image © Adriá Goula

但是,在全球的气候中,如果要满足统一的标准则有些困难。不同气候下的设计策略可以影响到最终设计成果,因此小编在不同的气候与环境之中进行了项目筛选,展示了不同气候下的不同设计可能:

炎热干旱气候

在炎热干旱的气候条件中,建筑师需要控制早晚温差对于建筑的影响。因此需要使用一些热惯性较高的材料,这些材料会将白天会吸收热量,在夜晚释放出来。另外,建筑师还需要保证一定的日照,同时减少热辐射,避免建筑遭遇过于强烈的日光直射,因此,建筑师可以使用Brise Soleil立面、百叶、格栅、植物等等。

However, with such diverse climates around the world, achieving all these standards can be difficult in some cases. Bioclimatic strategies that are adequate for each context can determine the success or failure of an educational project. We have selected some projects in different climates and contexts to show the possibilities of working to achieve interesting projects for each climate:

Hot and Dry Climates
In hot and dry climates, it is essential to mitigate the effects of the diurnal temperature variation (difference in temperature between day and night). Therefore, the use of materials with high thermal inertia is important, allowing the heat absorbed during the day to be released during the night. Another issue is finding the balance between ensuring maximum illumination and minimizing thermal radiation, in order to protect buildings from intense sunlight, either with the use of Brise Soleil facades, blinds, trellises, or even vegetation.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第3张图片
Image © Erik-Jan Ouwerkerk

Gando小学/ Kéré Architecture

建筑师将屋面与厚重的砖石墙体分隔开,并且应用百叶窗,让建筑更加通风,同时拥有自然采光。

Primary School in Gando / Kéré Architecture
By detaching the roof from the thick brick walls, Francis Kéré provides ventilation, and pleasant internal lighting through blinds.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第4张图片
Image Cortesia de Marta Maccaglia, Paulo Afonso, Piers Blake

Mazaronkiari多功能教室/ Marta Maccaglia + Paulo Afonso

通透的木质百叶窗结合出挑的屋檐,让建筑能够更加适应周围环境。

Mazaronkiari Multifunctional Classroom / Marta Maccaglia + Paulo Afonso
The permeability of the wooden blinds, combined with the prominent eaves, turn this classroom into a good example of architecture that is adaptive to the surroundings.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第5张图片
Image © Peter Dibdin

社区女校/ Orkidstudio

建筑师利用热惯性、交叉通风、叠加效应,内部院落的建立给建筑带来有趣的集合空间。

Community Primary School for Girls / Orkidstudio
In addition to making use of thermal inertia, cross-ventilation and stack effect, the creation of internal courtyards also provides interesting gathering spaces.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第6张图片
Image Cortesia de Irene Librando, Nadia Peruggi, Lucile Bitz, Antonella Mennella

Kalì Pavilion / Irene Librando and Nadia Peruggi

    “生土墙体、抬高的屋面、木质屏风,这些元素不仅仅创造了教室空间,还对于其小气候至关重要。在当地的旱季,即使是下雨,Ashanti地区的温度仍然能够在20至40摄氏度之间。因此让孩子们在凉爽的空间中学习,能够有效地提高他们的注意力。”

"The rammed earth walls, along with the elevated roof and wooden screens, not only create the ambiance of the classroom but are crucial to its microclimate. Even when it rains during the dry season, temperatures in the Ashanti region range between 20 and 40 degrees Celsius. Allowing children to study in a cool space during the warmest hours of the day is extremely important for them to concentrate."


高温高湿气候

在高温高湿气候中,昼夜的温差并不大,因此热惯性策略在此并不适用。这些地方的气候恶劣,降雨也多。由于温度高,因此建筑师需要控制热量的直接辐射。因此充足的自然通风就十分重要,它能够有效地散热并且降低一定的湿度。另外,建筑师还需要结合考虑遮阳挡雨设施,例如屏风、百叶窗、屋面等等,都能够改善室内状况。

Hot and Humid Climates
In hot and humid climates, the temperature variations between day and night are much smaller, and thermal inertia is not an adequate strategy. These are places where the climate is stuff and rainfall isn't uncommon. Because of the heat, it is also important to stop direct radiation. Generous ventilation is vital to dissipate heat and reduce humidity. Screen blocks, blinds, and roofs that provide shade and protection from rain can improve indoor conditions.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第7张图片
Image © Sergio Gomez

Pies Descalzos学校/ Giancarlo Mazzanti

在该项目中,建筑师应用了通风措施,这些措施应用在立面与屋面之中,建筑材质较为轻盈,其形态也有效阻挡了部分热辐射,为学校带来自然通风。

Pies Descalzos School / Giancarlo Mazzanti
The various filters in the project, both on the façades and on the roofs themselves, along with the lightweight materials and slim shapes, block the radiation and provide ventilation at this school in Colombia.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第8张图片
Image © Julián Castro

Siete Vueltas乡村教育机构/ Plan:b arquitectos

轻质屋面与屏风给建筑带来了空气的流通。

Siete Vueltas Rural Educational Institution / Plan:b arquitectos
The lightweight roof and the screen blocks ensure constant air flow in the building.



寒冷气候

在寒冷气候中,最主要的问题就是建筑内部的保温,因此此类建筑需要厚重且保温性高的墙体,其门窗亦是如此。同时,自然采光同样充足,并且避免热量的流失。

Cold Climates
In cold weather, the main concern is keeping the heat inside the building. Buildings are more robust, with thicker walls and higher thermal insulation. Door and window frames are critical. It is important that they allow light and heat to enter while avoiding becoming heat escape points.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第9张图片
Image © Guillaume Amat

“la ruche” Perthes-en-Gatinais学校/ TRACKS

    这所学校位于法国,大型玻璃面板和天窗元素让内部充斥着自然采光。

School “la ruche” Perthes-en-Gatinais / TRACKS
At this school in France, large glass panes and skylighting elements fill the interiors with diffused light.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第10张图片
Image © Toshinari Soga (studio BAUHAUS)

HN幼儿园 / HIBINOSEKKEI + Youji no Shiro

该地区的一年大部分时间都十分寒冷,因此建筑师将室内外空间相结合,应用了树木与自然采光,让建筑环境更加宜人。

HN Nursery / HIBINOSEKKEI + Youji no Shiro
Due to the cold weather most of the year, this project brings the outside to the inside. Trees and generous natural lighting make for extremely pleasant environments.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第11张图片
Image © Alexandra Timpau

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第12张图片
Image © Alexandra Timpau


Nová Ruda – Vratislavice nad Nisou幼儿园/ Petr Stolín Architekt

这座幼儿园位于捷克,建筑师应用了在厚重的隔热墙体外面应用了半透明聚碳酸酯。

Kindergarten Nová Ruda – Vratislavice nad Nisou / Petr Stolín Architekt
This daycare center in the Czech Republic uses the translucency of polycarbonate on its facade, over thick thermally insulated walls.


温和气候

不会过于寒冷或是炎热的气候能给建筑师最大的发挥空间。

Mild Climates
When the climate is not extremely cold or hot, architects experience greater design freedom in choosing materials and strategies.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第13张图片
Image Cortesia de Collingridge and Smith Architects

Chrysalis儿童中心/ Collingridge and Smith Architects

这个项目位于新西兰,建筑环绕两棵巨大的树而排布,构成有趣的空间。

Chrysalis Childcare Centre / Collingridge and Smith Architects

The arrangement surrounding two huge trees creates interesting atmospheres in this project in New Zealand.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第14张图片
Image © Nelson Kon

Beacon学校/ Andrade Morettin Arquitetos + GOAA - Gusmão Otero Arquitetos Associados

在这个项目中,建筑师充分利用了废弃工业仓库,设计了半开放空间,建筑的内外空间边界较为模糊。

Beacon School / Andrade Morettin Arquitetos + GOAA - Gusmão Otero Arquitetos Associados
Taking advantage of the structure of industrial warehouses in disuse, the intervention creates semi-open spaces, which blur the boundaries between exterior and interior.

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第15张图片
Image © Adriá Goula

4种气候下儿童教育建筑的大对比第16张图片
Image © Adriá Goula


El Til·ler学校/ Eduard Balcells + Tigges Architekt + Ignasi Rius Architecture

建筑师充分利用了窗户结构的优势,为孩子们创造了合乎尺度的起居空间。

El Til·ler School / Eduard Balcells + Tigges Architekt + Ignasi Rius Architecture
The architects took advantage of the rational structure of the windows to create interesting living spaces for the children, consistent with their size.

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